《Cracking the coding interview》是一本被许多人极力推荐的程序员面试书籍， 详情可见：http://www.careercup.com/book。 里面有150道程序员面试题目及相应的解答。书中大部分是编程题目， 并且配有相应的java程序(有些地方有错误或是有更优的方案)。我把书中的题目做了一遍， 并且记录下来，包含自己对问题的一些思路及看法，许多问题给出了两种以上的解答方案。 由于个人平时使用较多的是C++，所以程序是用C++编写，所有的代码都托管在Github上：
|**Chapter 1||Arrays and Strings**|
1.3 Design an algorithm and write code to remove the duplicate characters in a string without using any additional buffer. NOTE: One or two additional variables are fine. An extra copy of the array is not. FOLLOW UP Write the test cases for this method.
1.8 Assume you have a method isSubstring which checks if one word is a substring of another. Given two strings, s1 and s2, write code to check if s2 is a rotation of s1 using only one call to isSubstring (i.e., “waterbottle” is a rotation of “erbottlewat”).
|**Chapter 2||Linked Lists**|
2.3 Implement an algorithm to delete a node in the middle of a single linked list, given only access to that node. EXAMPLE Input: the node ‘c’ from the linked list a->b->c->d->e Result: nothing is returned, but the new linked list looks like a->b->d->e
2.4 You have two numbers represented by a linked list, where each node contains a single digit. The digits are stored in reverse order, such that the 1’s digit is at the head of the list. Write a function that adds the two numbers and returns the sum as a linked list. EXAMPLE Input: (3 -> 1 -> 5) + (5 -> 9 -> 2) Output: 8 -> 0 -> 8
2.5 Given a circular linked list, implement an algorithm which returns node at the beginning of the loop. DEFINITION Circular linked list: A (corrupt) linked list in which a node’s next pointer points to an earlier node, so as to make a loop in the linked list. EXAMPLE input: A -> B -> C -> D -> E -> C (the same C as earlier) output: C
|**Chapter 3||Stacks and Queues**|
3.3 Imagine a (literal) stack of plates. If the stack gets too high, it might topple. Therefore, in real life, we would likely start a new stack when the previous stack exceeds some threshold. Implement a data structure SetOfStacks that mimics this. SetOfStacks should be composed of several stacks, and should create a new stack once the previous one exceeds capacity. SetOfStacks.push() and SetOfStacks.pop() should behave identically to a single stack (that is, pop() should return the same values as it would if there were just a single stack). FOLLOW UP Implement a function popAt(int index) which performs a pop operation on a specific sub-stack.
3.4 In the classic problem of the Towers of Hanoi, you have 3 rods and N disks of different sizes which can slide onto any tower. The puzzle starts with disks sorted in ascending order of size from top to bottom (e.g., each disk sits on top of an even larger one). You have the following constraints: (A) Only one disk can be moved at a time. (B) A disk is slid off the top of one rod onto the next rod. (C) A disk can only be placed on top of a larger disk. Write a program to move the disks from the first rod to the last using Stacks.
3.6 Write a program to sort a stack in ascending order. You should not make any assump- tions about how the stack is implemented. The following are the only functions that should be used to write this program: push | pop | peek | isEmpty.
|**Chapter 4||Trees and Graphs**|
4.1 Implement a function to check if a tree is balanced. For the purposes of this question, a balanced tree is defined to be a tree such that no two leaf nodes differ in distance from the root by more than one.
4.6 Design an algorithm and write code to find the first common ancestor of two nodes in a binary tree. Avoid storing additional nodes in a data structure. NOTE: This is not necessarily a binary search tree.
4.8 You are given a binary tree in which each node contains a value. Design an algorithm to print all paths which sum up to that value. Note that it can be any path in the tree - it does not have to start at the root.
|**Chapter 5||Bit Manipulation**|
5.1 You are given two 32-bit numbers, N and M, and two bit positions, i and j. Write a method to set all bits between i and j in N equal to M (e.g., M becomes a substring of N located at i and starting at j). EXAMPLE: Input: N = 10000000000, M = 10101, i = 2, j = 6 Output: N = 10001010100
5.7 An array A[1…n] contains all the integers from 0 to n except for one number which is missing. In this problem, we cannot access an entire integer in A with a single operation. The elements of A are represented in binary, and the only operation we can use to access them is “fetch the jth bit of A[i]”, which takes constant time. Write code to find the missing integer. Can you do it in O(n) time?
|**Chapter 6||Brain Teasers**|
|**Chapter 7||Object Oriented Design**|
8.2 Imagine a robot sitting on the upper left hand corner of an NxN grid. The robot can only move in two directions: right and down. How many possible paths are there for the robot? FOLLOW UP Imagine certain squares are “off limits”, such that the robot can not step on them. Design an algorithm to get all possible paths for the robot.
8.5 Implement an algorithm to print all valid (e.g., properly opened and closed) combinations of n-pairs of parentheses. EXAMPLE: input: 3 (e.g., 3 pairs of parentheses) output: ()()(), ()(()), (())(), ((()))
8.6 Implement the “paint fill” function that one might see on many image editing programs. That is, given a screen (represented by a 2 dimensional array of Colors), a point, and a new color, fill in the surrounding area until you hit a border of that color.
|**Chapter 9||Sorting and Searching**|
9.3 Given a sorted array of n integers that has been rotated an unknown number of times, give an O(log n) algorithm that finds an element in the array. You may assume that the array was originally sorted in increasing order. EXAMPLE: Input: find 5 in array (15 16 19 20 25 1 3 4 5 7 10 14) Output: 8 (the index of 5 in the array)
9.5 Given a sorted array of strings which is interspersed with empty strings, write a method to find the location of a given string. Example: find “ball” in [“at”, “”, “”, “”, “ball”, “”, “”, “car”, “”, “”, “dad”, “”, “”] will return 4 Example: find “ballcar” in [“at”, “”, “”, “”, “”, “ball”, “car”, “”, “”, “dad”, “”, “”] will return -1
9.7 A circus is designing a tower routine consisting of people standing atop one another’s shoulders. For practical and aesthetic reasons, each person must be both shorter and lighter than the person below him or her. Given the heights and weights of each person in the circus, write a method to compute the largest possible number of people in such a tower. EXAMPLE: Input (ht, wt): (65, 100) (70, 150) (56, 90) (75, 190) (60, 95) (68, 110) Output: The longest tower is length 6 and includes from top to bottom: (56, 90) (60,95) (65,100) (68,110) (70,150) (75,190)
|**Chapter 12||System Design and Memory Limits**|
12.1 If you were integrating a feed of end of day stock price information (open, high, low,and closing price) for 5,000 companies, how would you do it? You are responsible for the development, rollout and ongoing monitoring and maintenance of the feed. Describe the different methods you considered and why you would recommend your approach. The feed is delivered once per trading day in a comma-separated format via an FTP site. The feed will be used by 1000 daily users in a web application.
12.2 How would you design the data structures for a very large social network (Facebook,LinkedIn, etc)? Describe how you would design an algorithm to show the connection, or path, between two people (e.g., Me -> Bob -> Susan -> Jason -> You).
12.3 Given an input file with four billion integers, provide an algorithm to generate an integer which is not contained in the file. Assume you have 1 GB of memory. FOLLOW UP What if you have only 10 MB of memory?
12.4 You have an array with all the numbers from 1 to N, where N is at most 32,000. The array may have duplicate entries and you do not know what N is. With only 4KB of memory available, how would you print all duplicate elements in the array?
13.8 Write a method that takes a pointer to a Node structure as a parameter and returns a complete copy of the passed-in data structure. The Node structure contains two pointers to other Node structures.
15.5 Imagine a simple database storing information for students’ grades. Design what this database might look like, and provide a SQL query to return a list of the honor roll students (top 10%), sorted by their grade point average.
|**Chapter 16||Low Level**|
17.4 What is a network / subnet mask? Explain how host A sends a message / packet to host B when: (a) both are on same network and (b) both are on different networks. Explain which layer makes the routing decision and how.
|**Chapter 18||Threads and Locks**|
18.3 Implement a singleton design pattern as a template such that, for any given class Foo, you can call Singleton::instance() and get a pointer to an instance of a singleton of type Foo. Assume the existence of a class Lock which has acquire() and release() methods. How could you make your implementation thread safe and exception safe?
18.5 Suppose we have the following code:… i) Can you design a mechanism to make sure that B is executed after A, and C is executed after B? ii) Suppose we have the following code to use class Foo. We do not know how the threads will be scheduled in the OS. Can you design a mechanism to make sure that all the methods will be executed in sequence?
19.5 The Game of Master Mind is played as follows: The computer has four slots containing balls that are red (R), yellow (Y), green (G) or blue (B). For example, the computer might have RGGB (e.g., Slot #1 is red, Slots #2 and #3 are green, Slot #4 is blue). You, the user, are trying to guess the solution. You might, for example, guess YRGB. When you guess the correct color for the correct slot, you get a “hit”. If you guess a color that exists but is in the wrong slot, you get a “pseudo-hit”. For example, the guess YRGB has 2 hits and one pseudo hit. For each guess, you are told the number of hits and pseudo-hits. Write a method that, given a guess and a solution, returns the number of hits and pseudo hits.
20.2 Write a method to shuffle a deck of cards. It must be a perfect shuffle - in other words, each 52! permutations of the deck has to be equally likely. Assume that you are given a random number generator which is perfect.
20.5 You have a large text file containing words. Given any two words, find the shortest distance (in terms of number of words) between them in the file. Can you make the searching operation in O(1) time? What about the space complexity for your solution?
20.11 Imagine you have a square matrix, where each cell is filled with either black or white. Design an algorithm to find the maximum subsquare such that all four borders are filled with black pixels.